Relative Velocity Simulation

In yet another demonstration of ChatGPT 4o’s capabilities, I generated the above simulation app without writing a single line of code myself:

The process took 4 prompts.

Prompt 1: Create a javascript simulation in a single html file that demonstrates the addition of two velocity vectors to give a resultant velocity. The velocity of a boat travelling in still water moving across a river is shown as vertically upward. A slider will change the speed and direction of the water flow. The velocity of the river water is also shown. Finally, show the addition of the two vectors to give a third vector: the resultant velocity. Create a button for animating the boat’s movement.

Response: Here’s an HTML file with embedded JavaScript to create a simulation of the addition of two velocity vectors. This simulation includes a slider to adjust the speed and direction of the river flow, and a button to animate the boat’s movement. (Code is not included to avoid making this post too long.)

Prompt 2: Use two horizontal lines to show the shores of the river, also the starting and ending point of the boat’s journey. The boat should be represented with a pencil-like shape, moving upward from one horizontal line to another. The boat should be moving in the direction of the resultant velocity. The vectors should be represented with arrows, not just lines.

Response: Here’s the updated HTML file with the specified features:

Two horizontal lines representing the shores of the river.
A pencil-like shape representing the boat, moving from one shore to the other in the direction of the resultant velocity.
Arrows to represent the vectors.

Prompt 3: Very good! Now invert the shape of the boat vertically. Also, draw some light blue wavy curves between the two horizontal lines that are stationary when the river speed is zero but move at the river velocity otherwise.

Response: Here’s the updated HTML file with the specified changes:

The boat shape is inverted vertically.
Light blue wavy curves are drawn between the two horizontal lines to represent the river water. These waves are stationary when the river speed is zero but move at the river velocity otherwise.

Prompt 4: Keep the canvas to 640 pixels wide and 480 pixels tall. Resize everything else accordingly.

And what you see in the beginning of this post was the result.

Creating a Python App with Glowscript using ChatGPT

Fleming’s Left-Hand Rule is a visual way to remember the direction of force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field. In this rule, the thumb, forefinger, and middle finger of your left hand are held at right angles to each other. The thumb represents the direction of the force, the forefinger the direction of the magnetic field, and the middle finger the direction of the current.

To visualize this with GlowScript’s VPython, I used ChatGPT to generate a 3D scene with arrows representing each of these directions.

The prompts used were

Generate a glowscript python code for visualising fleming’s left-hand rule.

Use mouse or finger interactions to rotate the scene

Include a toggle to switch from the left-hand rule to the right hand rule.


Stationary Wave Interactive using ChatGPT

I wanted to challenge ChatGPT to produce a complex interactive in order to prove that it is possible for teachers without much programming background to work with it as well.

This time, it was a lot more trial and error. The first major problem was when I thought the usual javascript library for graphs, Chart.JS would work. However, what I produced as a wonky wave in both directions that somehow attenuated as it travelled even though the equation of the waves did not have a decay factor.

The equation was generated by ChatGPT but looked like a normal sinusoidal function to me:

var y1 = Math.sin(2 * Math.PI * x / wavelength - 2 * Math.PI * time / period);

This is what the wonky graph looks like:

My suspicion is that Chart.JS makes use of points to form the curve so animating so many points at one go put too much demand on the app.

I then asked ChatGPT to suggest a different library. It then proceeded to make a new app with Plotly.JS, which works much better with moving graphs. This impressed me. I am learning so much with this new workflow. The final interactive graph can be found here:

I decided to add more functions after the first page was ready. While it took me about an hour to get the first page right with about 15 iterations mainly due to the wrong javascript library used, adding in more sliders to make the interactive more complex with variable wavelengths, periods and amplitudes took less than 10 minutes.

I shall just share the prompts that were given after I realised that plotly.js is the way to go.

Prompts for the index page:

  1. Create a graph using plotly.js with a vertical axis for displacement of wave particles and a horizontal axis for distance moved by a wave. .
  2. Draw the curve of an infinitely long transverse wave moving along the horizontal axis.
  3. Create another infinitely long transverse wave of the same wavelength moving in the opposite direction along the same horizontal axis. Represent them in different colours.
  4. Use a slider to change the period of oscillation of both waves and another slider to change the wavelength of the waves.
  5. Each wave should have the same wavelength.
  6. Revised prompt: Keep the vertical axis fixed in height, equal to the maximum possible amplitude of the third wave.
  7. Revised prompt: Keeep the legend of the chart to the bottom so that the horizontal axis length is fixed at 640 pixels

Prompts for the second page:

  1. Have separate sliders for the amplitudes, periods and wavelengths of wave 1 and wave 2.
  2. Display the values of the sliders next to them.

Dice Simulation to Teach Probability

A dice simulation is an excellent tool for teaching probability because it provides a hands-on, visual way for students to understand the concepts of probability through experimentation and observation.

In the simplest demonstration, students should be able to predict and observe that a fair six-sided dice gives equal probability of outcome and hence, almost equal total occurrences given a large-enough sample size.

Students can then be asked to predict the probability distribution if given two dice.

The good thing is that with simulations, students get to compare the experimental probabilities they calculated with the theoretical probabilities and discuss any discrepancies and reasons for them. This allows students to understand the concept of randomness and how experimental results may vary from theoretical expectations due to chance.

Click here to access the simulator and here to download it for SLS.

The prompts used for ChatGPT are as follow:

Provide the code for the following in a single html file:

  1. Create a 6-sided dice simulator where the user can click on the image of a dice, the dice image will change randomly and the final result will be shown on the image.
  2. The dice image will be represented by the file “dice1.png” for the number 1, “dice2.png” for number 2, “dice3.png” for number 3 and so on. The image size is 80 pixels by 80 pixels.
  3. The default setting shows one dice. The initial image shown is “dice1.png”.
  4. Create a button to cast the dice.
  5. Create a bar chart with 6 vertical columns at the bottom that shows the frequency of the numbers obtained by the dice. Adjust the bar chart to show all 6 possible outcomes.
  6. Each time the dice is cast and the result is shown, it is added to a list shown below the chart.
  7. Create a button for an option to toggle between the use of one dice or two die. When this button is clicked, the list of results and the bar chart is cleared. The initial images shown are both “dice1.png”. If two die are used, both die will be shown side by side.
  8. Both die will be cast when clicking on either dice. The bar chart now shows the frequency of the total of the numbers obtained by the die. Adjust the bar chart such that it now has 12 vertical columns show all 12 possible outcomes.
  9. The total number for each toss will be shown in the list.

Creating Learning Apps Using ChatGPT

Simulating an Oscillation

Despite learning some time ago that ChatGPT can help with coding, I had not had the chance to test it out. Since I had a pocket of time available to explore last week, I keyed in the following prompt:

“Create a simulation of an oscillating particle moving from left to right with simple harmonic motion with a slider to control the period of oscillation using javascript, html and css.”

I then cut and pasted the code in its entirety into a html file and this is the output:

This is what it looks like, in case you do not want to click into the link above.

Of course, more work needs to be done to improve the usability but I believe some of that can be done using ChatGPT as well. A basic knowledge of the programming language will certainly help to refine the user interface or add new functions.

Extending the oscillation to include 100 particles each with a constant phase difference, we can simulate a wave :

Simluation of oscillation with variable period

For the second simulation, I used the following prompt:

“Create a simulation of particles moving horizontally with simple harmonic motion. The simulation should display 100 particles arranged vertically, each oscillating horizontally at a different phase. The horizontal motion of the particles should simulate simple harmonic motion, with their positions following a sine wave pattern. The amplitude of oscillation should be set to 100 pixels, and the period of oscillation should be controlled by a slider input with a range from 0.1 to 2 seconds. The particles should be confined within a container with a fixed width of 600 pixels and a height of 400 pixels. The slider input should be positioned at the bottom of the container. The simulation should update the positions of the particles at regular intervals to create the illusion of continuous motion.”


Next, I tried creating an webpage that allows students to practise recalling definitions of specific terms that are obtained from a csv file. This is the prompt I gave:

“Create a revision webpage using html, javascript and css that references a csv file in the same folder with three columns: “topic”, “term” and “definition”. There should be a filter for the “topic” field. Each term in the “term” field will be displayed in turn using a left and right button. Another button labelled “Definition” will be used to show or hide the corresponding “definition” field at the bottom. Put all the script and style codes in the html file.”

At first, the button to display the definitions did not appear as ChatGPT misunderstood my instructions.

After making some adjustments, this is the link to the functioning site:

and this is the refined html file:

All you have to do is to update the csv file with the topics, terms and definitions and ensure the index file is in the same folder as the data.csv file.

The best part for Singaporean teachers is, the zip file can be uploaded as a file into SLS and students can use it to test their recall of key terms.


The rise of generative AI is indeed creating new opportunities for learning, even for teachers. What used to require long hours of learning can now be condensed into a session with ChatGPT. We will still need to give very specific instructions which require some basic understanding of the product. At the same time, we need to be able to make tweaks here and there, but that should be easier since we have the basic structure of the product already.

Bouncing Ball Animation using Python

For a fullscreen view, visit

Modified this python simulation from Dr Darren Tan’s work at

Wanted to try out a different way of creating simulations. Added the acceleration-time graph in place of his energy-time graph, in preparation for the teaching of kinematics. Also assuming no energy loss during collisions for simplicity.

For Singapore teachers, I have submitted a request to SLS for this URL to be whitelisted for embedding. Once approved, glowscript simulations can be embedded as part of the lesson. For the time being, a URL link out to the simulation will have to do.