# 18. Quantum Physics

[accordions autoHeight=’true’]

[accordion title=”1. Particle Nature of Light”]

• photon is a quantum of electromagnetic radiation.
• The energy of a photon is given by E=hf, where h is Planck’s constant (6.63 $$\times$$ 10-34 J s) and f is its frequency.

[/accordion]

[accordion title=”1.1 Photoelectric Effect”]

• The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from a metal surface when electromagnetic radiation of sufficiently high frequency is shone on it.
• The energy of an incident photon is the sum of the maximum kinetic energy $$K.E._{max}$$ of the emitted electrons from the metal surface and the work function $$\Phi$$ of the metal. Einstein’s photoelectric equation states that

$$hf=\Phi +K.E._{max}=hf_o +K.E._{max}$$

• where $$f_o$$ is the threshold frequency or minimum frequency of the electromagnetic radiation below which no electrons are emitted from the metal surface regardless of the intensity of the radiation.
• The work function $$\Phi$$ of a metal is the minimum energy needed to remove an electron from the metal surface.
• $$K.E._{max}$$ can be measured by applying a voltage to prevent the emitted electrons from reaching the electrode that collects them. This voltage is known as the stopping voltage $$V_s$$ and since the charge of an electron is e, the equation can be rewritten as

$$hf=\Phi + eV_s$$.

[/accordion]

[accordion title=”1.2 Line Spectra”]

• An atom is in the ground state when its electron occupies the lowest energy level. When the atom gains energy, its ground state electron makes a transition to a higher energy level. The atom is said to be in an excited state.
• At this excited state, the electron is unstable. It will jump to a lower energy level by emitting a photon whose energy is equal to the energy difference between the two levels. The photon energy is given hf = Ehigher – Elower.
• The emission line spectra are the spectra of light radiated by individual atoms in a hot gas when the electrons in the atoms jump from higher energy levels to lower energy levels. Each spectrum consists of coloured lines on a dark background.
• The absorption line spectra consists of dark lines on a coloured background. When a beam of white light is passed through a cool gas, photons whose energies are equal to the excitation energies of the gas atoms, are absorbed. These photons are re-emitted in all directions, so the intensity of these wavelengths in the transmitted white light beam is reduced.

[/accordion]

[accordion title=”2. Wave Nature of Particles”]

• Louis de Broglie postulated that, because photons have wave and particle characteristics, perhaps all forms of matter have both properties. Electron diffraction provides evidence for the wave nature of particles.
• The de Broglie wavelength of a particle is given by $$\lambda = \dfrac{h}{p}$$ where p is the momentum (mv) of the particle and h is Planck’s constant.

[/accordion]

[accordion title=”3. X-ray Spectrum”]

[/accordion]

[accordion title=”4. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle”]

[/accordion]

[accordion title=”5. Wave Function and Probability”]

• An electron can be described by a wave function $$\Psi$$ where the square of the amplitude of the wave function $$|{\Psi}|^2$$ gives the probability of finding the electron at a point.

[/accordion]

[accordion title=”6. Quantum Tunneling”]

• Classically, an electron of energy E approaching a potential barrier, whose height U is greater than E, cannot penetrate the barrier but would simply be reflected and return in the opposite direction.
• However, quantum mechanics predicts that since $$|{\Psi}^2|$$ is non-zero beyond the barrier, there is a finite chance of this electron tunnelling through the barrier and reaching the other side of the barrier.
• The transmission coefficient T represents the probability with which an approaching electron will penetrate to the other side of the barrier. The transmission coefficient T is given by $$T=e^{-2kd}$$ where $$k=\sqrt{\dfrac{8\pi^2m(U-E)}{h^2}}$$

[/accordion]

[/accordions]